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Some Points of Interest, 1958-59 

David D. Henry 


University of Illinois 


JAM 8 

I. Some Current Indices 

As we look at the agenda of current business, we may infer that the 
University faces the future from a position of strength. 


While I do not wish to emphasize a quantitative measurement of the 
University's work, we should take note that the University of Illinois in- 
creased in a year of relatively stable enrolments among the large universities 
in the Middle West. 

The regular fall enrolment of the University this year reached the figure 
of 25,325, an increase of 1,082 with a significant increase on each campus. 

This enrolment places the University of Illinois second to the University 
of Minnesota among Council of Ten Universities (Minnesota has 26,568). 
The increase is second to the University of Wisconsin in this group (Wis- 
consin's increase was 1,623) . It registers the largest number of new freshmen 

The University's total increase took place despite a decline of 900 in 
veteran enrolment. The extramural enrolment is 3,678, compared with 3,074 
last year. Thus the grand total including residents and extramural enrol- 
ments for the year is 29,003, contrasted with 27,317 last year. 

Provost Gordon Ray has identified the following as contributing factors 
to the increase: 

1. Improved economic conditions in the state and nation: more money 
available to students and their families, better opportunities for jobs the 
previous summer, etc. 

2. The state scholarship program: 28 per cent of the 2,160 students re- 
ceiving state scholarships elected to attend the University of Illinois. 

3. More efficient counseling and admissions arrangements: the University's 
relations with the high schools are more extensive, efficient, and cordial 
than they have been in the past, and admission, registration, and fresh- 
man week procedures have improved. The steps taken in the administra- 
tion of testing, job placement, counseling, registration, student aids, 
housing contracts, etc., have all made their contribution to improved 

4. Availability of approved housing for nearly all students, both women and 

It should be pointed out, moreover, that the increase of 1,082 students was 
realized without any relaxation of standards. Denials totaled about 2,500 
this year, as opposed to about 1,700 in 1957-58, when statistics on this matter 
were kept for the first time. 

Indeed, the complexion of the student body has changed as a result of the 
new admissions practices, according to Dean C. W. Sanford. Nearly 50 per 
cent of the freshmen who enrolled last September on the Urbana-Champaign 
campus came from the top quarter of their high school classes, and nearly 
80 per cent were from the top half — a significant increase in each category 
over the previous year. Comparable improvement was noticed at the Chi- 
cago Undergraduate Division. 

The 14.68 per cent from the third quarter of the graduating class and the 
5.81 per cent from the lowest quarter are the smallest percentages in these 
categories in the University's record. 

This improvement in the quality of the student body has been achieved 
without arbitrary admissions regulations and with proper consideration of 
the capacities of the individual student. 



The past year has been a notable one in faculty recruitment. While we 
have regretted the departure of several honored and respected colleagues to 
posts of greater responsibility, we have been gratified to announce an impres- 
sive list of distinguished appointments. In general the University has been 
able to meet the intense academic competition among the first-rate institu- 
tions of the country. As will be noted later, to hold our own in this kind of 
competition will require prompt improvement in facilities and salaries, but 
at this moment we are pleased with the personnel record. 


The list of faculty honors and posts of professional responsibility is 


The bibliography of the University faculty has been the most extensive on 

The grants and contracts that have come to faculty members for research 
and experimental work from the national foundations, from the state, from 
individual and corporate donors, as well as from the federal government, 
have been reassuring. We are pleased, both for the confidence they reflect 
and the opportunities for extended service they provide. 

Alumni gifts to the University of Illinois Foundation have also come to an 
all-time high. 

New Programs 

While budget and space limitations have restricted expansion of the edu- 
cational program during the past year, a number of curricular innovations 
should be mentioned. 

A five-year program leading to simultaneous degrees in engineering and 
liberal arts went into effect this fall. It was established to meet the growing 
need for graduates with backgrounds in both areas. 

A new curriculum in forest production and in wood technology and utili- 
zation has been established. 

An honors program in mathematics was inaugurated this fall, designed to 
give a select group of freshmen and sophomores opportunity for a deeper 
and more thorough study of mathematics than is generally possible in the 
standard courses. 

Advanced work is being offered leading to new degrees of Doctor of 
Philosophy in Anthropology, Master of Science in Nuclear Engineering, and 
Master of Accounting Science. 

Additional courses are being offered to meet increased interest in Russian 
language and civilization. 

A new engineering mechanics curriculum opened this fall as a new field of 
technical preparation. 

New Buildings 

The buildings now under construction will add important research and 
teaching quarters. The biology building, fine and applied arts building, art 
gallery, the physics building, the computer laboratory, the library addition 
will be important new academic assets for the University. 

50th Anniversary of the Graduate College 

A highlight of the academic year was the observance of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the founding of the Graduate College. 

A study of leading American graduate schools published in December, 
1957, listed the University of Illinois in the top group in the number of 
degrees conferred and in the number of fields where the University gradu- 

ated large numbers. The study pointed out that among the institutions 
which gave the largest number of degrees in at least 10 out of the 48 
identified fields, Illinois ranked sixth. By a similar study in 1925-35, Illinois 
ranked eleventh. Assuming that the number of degrees awarded is indirectly 
a reflection of quality as measured by superior students, particularly where 
high standards of admission and graduation obtain, the increasing stature 
of the University of Illinois Graduate College is a point of pride. The in- 
creasing enrolment in the Graduate College is another satisfying index. 

These scattered observations on enrolment, on the faculty, on educational 
progress, on new facilities define a year of sound growth and increased 

If the measurement of our work were in a setting of static demand and 
unchanging circumstance, we would have reason to be assured, if not com- 
placent, about our ability to meet tasks ahead. 

Because the University is confronted with new demands, because the con- 
text for its work has changed, and because resources are below those required 
for a continuation of the high level performance of the past, it is important 
that we take stock and share our concern with the people of the state. 

I shall present a view of the tasks ahead under the headings: Internal 
Planning; External Planning; the Budget Year; the Faculty Emphasis; and 
University Relations. 

II. Internal Planning 

Two reports were issued during the past year which I believe will come to 
be regarded as milestones in the history of the University. 

I refer to the preliminary report of the University Study Committee on 
Future Programs and to the report of the University Building Program 
Committee on Requirements for the Decade, 1959-69. 


The Study Committee on Future Programs was appointed in June, 1957. 
It was asked to be a medium for institutional self-examination and to make 
suggestions for next steps in over-all educational planning. I expressed the 
hope that the Committee would emphasize outstanding guidelines for future 
development, some points of emphasis, some restated objectives, some new 
objectives, and programs to implement these suggestions. In short, I asked 
the Committee to provide the groundwork for future educational planning 
for the University. 

Recognizing that the future of the University of Illinois will be affected by 
state-wide planning and the development of other institutions, the Univer- 
sity Study Committee accepted its charge within these broad limitations. 

Since its continuing work would necessarily rest upon its assumptions 
about the chief responsibilities and aims of the University in the next decade, 
the Committee last June issued a preliminary report on this subject, together 
with some observations on the growth and size of the campus at Urbana- 
Champaign and on general education in the University. 

The President's Faculty Conference 

To assist the Committee in measuring the acceptance of its general prem- 
ises and to stimulate and collect suggestions which might be useful in future 
deliberations, a conference of approximately 100 faculty members was called 
in an all-day session on June 9, 1958. 1 

Because I believe the conclusions of the Committee and the conference 
will be influential in the future administration and planning of the Univer- 
sity, I give them stress today. The statement of future aims and responsibil- 
ities of the University, the heart of the report, follows. 

Future Aims and Responsibilities of the University 

We will assume that state-wide educational developments look toward wider 
sharing of undergraduate education among public and private institutions, especially 
at the freshman and sophomore level. On the other hand it may be assumed that 
for the next decade at least the University will continue to be the principal public 
institution with comprehensive programs at advanced levels in the fundamental 
fields of learning and in the professions. The spectrum of the University's activi- 
ties will continue to be broad but the chief functions on which its efforts should be 
focused as the State's educational system develops are the following: 

a. Teaching, research, and scholarly and creative activity in the fundamental fields 
of learning. 

b. Teaching and research in professional and occupational areas closely dependent 
on the fundamental fields of learning. 

c. Liberal education of able young men and women who do not intend to become 
highly trained specialists and, to the extent possible, of students aiming toward 
specialized or professional training. 

d. Vocational training in fields which are clearly of substantial and wide impor- 
tance to the State and Nation, especially those which require four-year programs 
including sound preparation in the fundamental fields of learning and which the 
University is uniquely or best fitted to provide. 

e. Extension education and essential public services which require the kinds and 
level of expertness represented in the faculty of the University. 

The characteristic feature in all of these functions is the emphasis and depend- 
ence on the fundamental branches of learning. It is this feature which will give the 
University unity and coherent purpose in the midst of diversity of function and of 
large numbers of students and faculty. All of these objectives are important. The 
order in which they are listed expresses the completeness with which the University 
must attempt to fulfil them. Thus teaching and the advancement of knowledge in 
the basic fields must underlie all of the University's essential work. For the next 
decade at least the University will have nearly unique responsibilities among the 
state-supported institutions in graduate teaching and research in the basic fields 
and in a number of professional and occupational fields. Liberal education, how- 
ever, will be shared among many colleges, as will vocational and some professional 

1 The abstract of proceedings of the conference together with the preliminary report 
will be printed within the next few weeks and made available to the members of the 
faculty and others who are especially interested. At the close of the conference, a 
consensus was stated, although, of course, not every participant necessarily subscribed 
to every part of every statement. 


training among a different group of colleges. The opportunities and needs for 
extension education and public service will be so numerous that the University will 
have to select those in which it can be most useful and effective and which are 
consistent with the major educational responsibilities of the University. 

Fundamental Fields of Learning: The fundamental fields are mathematics, the 
biological and physical sciences, the humanities, the fine arts and the social sci- 
ences. They are fundamental not only because they have long been studied for 
their own sake but also because they underlie most fields of applied knowledge. 
In science, for example, basic research is the source for every advance in applied 

Premises in Educational Planning 

As I see it, three fundamental theses emerge from the report and the 
discussion conference. 

1. Choices must be made. 

2. Institutional balance is essential to continuing effectiveness. 

3. Relationships with the people of the state must remain direct and 

The necessity for making choices arises from the pressure of additional 
numbers and the many other new demands while resources remain relatively 
limited within any one period. The University cannot be all things to all 
people and maintain quality and over-all effectiveness. 

The state university historically has followed the assumption that it would 
not only be a comprehensive instructional institution for college age youth, 
but a service institution willing to do anything of educational good for the 
general public. 

This objective may have been acceptable at the time when there was a 
limited number of agencies for education and related services and a much 
smaller constituency; but today in the interest of efficiency and quality and 
the best utilization of future resources, the comprehensive state university 
must make some choices. 

The Committee warns us that the kinds of choices that the University can 
make will be affected by the availability of educational opportunity else- 
where in the state. Will community colleges be established at the needed 
rate? Will they have the resources to develop good programs? Will the 
other state colleges and universities be strengthened? How rapidly may the 
four-year program in Chicago be developed? 

The second major thesis of this report is that balance is essential to quality 
and to over-all effectiveness. The report points out the importance of bal- 
ance between numbers of students in the lower division and in the upper 
division, among professional offerings, among activities in instruction, re- 
search, and service. It should be added that there must also be balance 
between facilities and enrolments, between campus size and the services of 
the local communities, between resources and demands. 


It would be a mistake to interpret the report or the conference statement 
as an endorsement of arbitrary restriction of the University's growth. Growth 
is a normal function of a living institution. To stimulate growth artificially 
is unwise. To limit growth arbitrarily is likewise unwise — it is as unwise 
now as it would have been when the University first reached an enrolment 
of one thousand or ten thousand. However, to plan for the University's 
growth to be in balance with respect to its several responsibilities and in 
relationship to its resources is a primary obligation of all concerned with its 

There, indeed, may be an optimum size for any one institution at any one 
place but that size should be determined by the formula of balance, not by 
a prejudgment in arithmetic. As long as the University has resources to do 
its work and keeps a proper balance within the objectives which it accepts, 
with quality of performance controling, it will continue to increase in 
strength, stature, and effectiveness. 

There are those who advocate altering the nature of the comprehensive 
state university to make it an institution with research as its main objective, 
with instructional service only for the intellectual elite. Following this course 
would invite a diminution of strength. 

The University of Illinois is strong because it is multi-faceted. It reaches 
into the life of the state on a broad front and in many ways. An arbitrary 
restriction on its size or its scope would cut its roots in popular support. 
Other institutions would be called upon to perform its discarded functions. 
It is not necessary, while encouraging research, graduate work, and achieve- 
ment from gifted students, to shut off the University's many other services 
as long as they are related to the over-all objectives as phrased in the 
preliminary report of the Committee on University Programs. 

The third thesis of the report, implied if not stated, is that the vitality of 
the University is affected by its relationships to the people of the state. 
Here, as in other aspects of the University's work, the services undertaken 
should be closely related to teaching and research. Yet the philosophy of 
grass roots service, affecting in some way every home, business, every citizen's 
welfare, must remain a guide. Thus, we are faced with the question of how 
to change our methods, practices, and program pattern in order to achieve 
balance, with the highest quality of performance, without changing the 
philosophy of broad and meaningful service to the people of the state. The 
method, obviously, now must be the discovery and dissemination of new 
knowledge, the provision of leadership and consultation in new forms, as 
well as in conventional instruction. 

In summary, the Committee's report represents an emphasis on the im- 
portance of careful planning within a coherent framework. In the past, the 
consideration of new developments has been sporadic and disjointed, unre- 
lated to an over-all plan. 


I believe the report of the Committee and the conference should be noted 
as a significant step in educational planning, consonant with the physical 
planning which has been so well carried forward over the years by the 
Building Program Committee of the University. 

In sending the preliminary report of the Committee on Future Programs 
to the members of the Board of Trustees, I indicated that action is not 
necessary at this time. I stated that I was impressed with the validity of the 
recommendations, however, and that the outline of direction given by the 
Committee is one in which I concur. 


A second milestone of the year was the report of the Building Program 
Committee, outlining the requirements for buildings and land between 1959 
and 1969. 

Confronted by the necessity of projecting building completions beyond two 
years, by the need to make clear the over-all requirements upon which the 
bond issue allocations were based, and by the need to relate building 
requirements to educational developments as well as to the enrolments of 
the future, the Building Program Committee in 1957 set out to define a 
ten-year program. 

The recommendations for the capital budget as approved by the Board of 
Trustees for 1959-61 are related to the tentative recommendation for 
1961-63 and these in turn are related to the ten-year outline. 

The report has taken into account minimum uniform standards for the 
campus, the sources of financing, priorities of space needs, and the maximum 
capacity for construction. 

The recommendations are of two kinds — those which would help the 
University catch up with past needs, and those which would prepare for the 

It should be emphasized that the recommended building program takes 
into account improvement of present performance as well as new enrolments. 
One-half of the space recommended is designed to help the University fulfil 
present obligations, including the requirements of the present program at the 
Chicago Undergraduate Division. Providing the faculty with research 
equipment and space and with facilities adequate for efficient instruction 
has come to be a primary element in faculty morale and in recruitment 
of staff. 

The planning upon which the Building Program Committee has made its 
recommendations is flexible and susceptible to continuing refinement and 
revision. The Committee has utilized the ideas of faculty and staff from 
throughout the University as well as those of special consultants. The plan 


is one in which we can all have the greatest of confidence as to objectivity, 
integrity, and professional quality. 

Planning Assumptions for the Development 
of the Chicago Undergraduate Division 

A major portion of the physical planning is devoted to the Chicago Under- 
graduate Division. Approximately $50,000,000 of the ten-year estimate of 
$198,534,000 is allocated to proposed permanent facilities for the present 
two-year program. This figure will have to be increased by any site cost 
above $3,000,000 and by facilities required by expansion to degree programs. 

At the October 23 meeting of the Policy Committee of the University of 
Illinois Board of Trustees, the preliminary report on site studies prepared 
by the Real Estate Research Corporation was presented. Four sites were 
identified as being superior to all others proposed, considered in the light of 
the criteria, other than cost and availability, established by the Real Estate 
Research Corporation in consultation with the Board of Trustees and Uni- 
versity of Illinois officials. When information regarding cost and availability 
is at hand, a ranking of the four sites will be made. 

The Chicago Undergraduate Division is being planned so that it can 
develop into a general campus of the University of Illinois, serving commut- 
ing students living in the Chicago area. Authoritative estimates indicate that 
15,000 to 20,000 students may be expected at the Chicago campus by 1970. 

Staff plans call for the development of the campus in several stages. The 
first stage will be the establishment, by 1963, at the permanent campus of 
programs currently being offered at Navy Pier — the first two years of col- 
lege work, including the following areas of instruction: liberal arts and 
sciences, engineering (including architecture), commerce and business ad- 
ministration, and physical education. 

The second stage will be the establishment of four-year degree programs 
in a limited number of fields of instruction. It is anticipated that courses for 
upperclassmen will be added as soon after 1963 as physical facilities and 
operational funds can be made available. 

As the need for new programs arises, and as soon thereafter as the proper 
physical facilities and staff can be provided, additional curricula will be 
offered at the Chicago Undergraduate Division. 

Each major step in the development of the Chicago campus will be taken 
after full consultation with the Illinois Commission of Higher Education, 
with due consideration of the services of other institutions in the area. 

The Real Estate Research Corporation has advised the Board of Trustees 
that any one of the four sites described in its prelimiary report would be 
superior in meeting the criteria of accessibility, expansibility, and general 
character. As already noted, a choice from among the four sites must yet be 


made in terms of cost and availability. The latter factor is defined in terms 
of the time table established by the Board of Trustees. This time table 
provides for the beginning of construction in January, I960, and the reloca- 
tion of the Chicago Undergraduate Division on the new campus in the fall 
of 1963, when facilities must be ready to accommodate 6,000 commuting 
students, 1,500 more than can be accommodated at Navy Pier. 

Chicago Professional Colleges 

Another major portion of the building planning has to do with the 
Chicago Professional Colleges. 

When the Research and Educational Hospitals were completed, the gen- 
eral plan called for the remodeling of the older structures for laboratories 
and non-hospital uses by the Colleges. This program of remodeling has 
proceeded slowly, partly because funds have not been available in sufficient 
amount, and partly because each new step is dependent upon the comple- 
tion of a prior one. The completion of this remodeling program requires 
approximately $7,000,000. 

New construction at the Chicago Professional Colleges includes comple- 
tion of the Research Building, the first half of which is now under construc- 
tion, a laboratory addition to the Hospitals, the Medical Sciences Building, 
completion of the Dental-Medical-Pharmacy Building, the provision of a 
gymnasium and an auditorium, and construction of a drug and horticulture 
building. Service projects include steam plant, laundry, and a student union. 

The estimated cost of new construction is $25,000,000, with a total re- 
quirement at the Medical Center campus in the next ten-year period of 
approximately $32,000,000. 

The ten-year allocation to the Champaign-Urbana campus is $115,- 
960,000. The details of this program are included in the printed report 
which has had distribution and which is available upon request. The grand 
total for the ten years is $198,534,000. 

The physical needs of the University of Illinois are large. They represent 
a backlog of accumulated building deficits and a conservative estimate of 
the minimum requirements for future enrolments and for an adequate 
research program. The estimates are projected on the assumption that 
student housing will be self-liquidating over the lifetime of the buildings and 
that many facilities will come to the University through private gifts and 
matching grants. 

I believe the planning estimates are conservative. Both economy and 
efficiency require that we move forward promptly in their fulfilment. For 
these reasons the Building Program Committee has suggested that we build 
as rapidly as construction capacity permits during the next four years. This 
means a capital budget of $54,879,000 in 1959-61; $68,340,000 in 1961-63; 
and the balance of $75,315,000 in 1963-69. 


In this discussion of internal planning for the University I have stressed 
the two reports which have had to do with over-all University responsibili- 
ties in education and physical plant planning. Note should be taken also of 
the planning activities going forward on the direction of University com- 
mittees dealing with instruction by television, alumni affairs, degree pro- 
grams of the Chicago Undergraduate Division, University extension, general 
education, programs for gifted students, space science and technology, ger- 
ontology, student services, instruction and research in child development, 
religious education, community problems. These study groups are in addi- 
tion to the many important standing and ad hoc committees assisting in the 
solution of immediate administrative problems or advising on continuing 


III. State Planning 

Any discussion of the State of the University in 1958-59 must take into 
account the University's relationships with other institutions and the activi- 
ties in state planning for higher education. 

There is a great deal of general interest in this subject. In public dis- 
cussion, there is also a great deal of oversimplification of the issues involved 
as well as an exaggeration of some of the weaknesses of the present 


The current public interest in state planning in higher education came 
into focus in the creation in 1957 of the Illinois Commission of Higher 
Education. Organized late in that year, the Commission undertook its 
assignment with vigor and already has progress to report. It procured a 
highly competent professional staff, created a number of advisory commit- 
tees, and initiated a number of important studies. It has met regularly and 
faithfully in undertaking its heavy responsibilities. It will present its first 
report to the Governor and the General Assembly early in 1959. 

The University of Illinois has cooperated fully with the Commission, has 
made staff resources available for the Commission's work and has inter- 
estedly participated in the discussions at all levels and at all stages. 

In my view, the Commission represents a sound, practical middle ground 
for effective state planning in higher education in Illinois. It is "middle 
ground" in the sense that it is structured between voluntary and mandatory 
coordination. As a design for practical progress, the Commission deserves 
support and understanding as it deals with the complex problems involved. 



The present public interest in state planning is related to the new wide- 
spread concern about the welfare of higher education. It has been said that 
the average citizen is ambivalent in his attitude toward the colleges and 
universities. He is amazed at the projected cost in dollars and energy to 
gear up the educational enterprise to the requirements of the space age; yet 
he realizes that education has become an instrument of national defense and 
international policy as well as of economic strength and individual fulfilment. 

As he studies ways and means to strengthen education, Mr. Average 
Citizen expects wise planning, prudent management, and efficient utilization 
of educational resources. He is beginning to ask for state planning as a 
condition for greater support. Unilateral, institutional expansion without 
professional study of the needs of the state as a whole or of the potential 
contribution of all institutions supplying that need, public and private, 
appear to him unwise. Favoring one geographical area at the expense of 
another will not make much sense. He will expect new developments to be 
based on a broad view of higher education in the public service, upon facts 
rather than bias, upon consultation rather than competition, and upon the 
ability to evolve adequate machinery for the implementation of interinstitu- 
tional action. 


What are the responsibilities of the state university in state planning? 

Some say, "Why bother about what others do? Why not chart one's own 
course, go one's own way?" A ready answer, already suggested, is that 
participation in state planning is a matter of intelligent internal planning. 
Obviously what happens in any one institution affects in some way every 
institution. For example, no comprehensive state university can ignore the 
impact upon its own work from the efforts of regional institutions to under- 
take state-wide responsibilities. No state university can ignore the develop- 
ment of junior colleges. No state university can ignore the expansion of 
other institutions within the state and remain efficient or realistic in its own 

Equally important is the public view of the comprehensive land-grant 
state university as having a responsibility to the state as a whole on many 
fronts. It is a source of ideas on many subjects. The university is expected 
to exercise leadership in all planning where education and research have a 
bearing on the state's welfare. 

Beyond current necessity and historical expectation, there is the inherent 
professional obligation to have the university's resources utilized in the im- 
provement of education service in general. Incumbent upon all state uni- 


versities is* the expectation for educational statesmanship in working for a 
prudent and wise utilization of a state's resources, for leadership in planning 
for maximum results from the expenditures of the state's educational dollars 
and energy. 


While we may believe that state planning is inevitable and that sound 
state planning will encourage a prudent use of the state's resources, and 
make for an orderly pattern of institutional relationships, we must also take 
note of the parallel public concern with the question of enforced coordina- 
tion of the state universities and other institutions. The new interest in this 
subject arises from different sources, for different reasons: from some who 
have an interest in making sure that state planning will be quickly effective; 
from others who have an interest only in limiting expenditures. 

A single board of control for the public institutions within a state is not a 
panacea, however. Experience with this mechanism is uneven among the 
states where it has been tried and at best it cannot deal adequately with the 
institutions outside its jurisdiction. Further, merely amalgamating boards 
of control or creating a "super board" does not automatically achieve the 
result desired among the institutions directly concerned. In the more com- 
plex situations, particularly, there should also be carefully designed plans for 
integration of administration and of program and agreement on general 
objectives. Without such integration, a super-board plan may but transfer 
present confusion from one arena to another. 

There are those who say that voluntary planning, without any new ma- 
chinery, is enough. Unfortunately, the record on voluntary planning is not 
very good. There are a few examples in the United States where such 
planning is apparently working. However, one institution moving in a 
competitive spirit and without regard for the welfare of the state as a whole 
can destroy cooperative relationships. In such a situation, the main state 
university cannot adequately make its case or reply to covert criticism, 
because a public quarrel is an inappropriate posture for a professionally 
responsible agency. 

The machinery for state planning cannot be patterned on example, more- 
over. Examples are always illustrative, but they do not prove. It is well to 
remember the limitations on comparisons. No two institutions can be com- 
pared, for they are unlike in too many ways. Nor can one state solve its 
problems by imitating others. 

Institutions, like people, resemble one another in many ways, but in 
personality, nature, temperament, purposes, character, each is an individual 
and must be understood as an individual. States, too, must work out their 


problems in the light of their resources, their history, their standards and 

Institutional relationships must be hammered out in ways indigenous to a 
state community. The organization of one state may look effective, but still 
be ineffective in another. Coordination at the state level must take into 
account historical relationships and present capacities, as well as the differ- 
ences in leadership and professional attitudes. 

In trying to build a state plan for the future of higher education, there is 
not one answer but many. Junior colleges must be encouraged. Private 
institutions must be utilized to the utmost. New institutions may have to be 
established. Existing institutions must be strengthened and helped to grow. 

In facing these new developments, it must be continually emphasized that 
coordination is a result, not a process. It cannot successfully be imposed. It 
does not arrive suddenly. It does not come through edict or mandate. Effec- 
tive state plans grow out of the experience of institutions in working together. 

I believe that improved coordination among the institutional programs 
and services in Illinois will be the outcome of professional studies and 
discussions, particularly if there is adequate machinery for effective com- 
munication and analysis. The Commission of Higher Education can provide 
that machinery. 

Further, I believe that the most useful work of the Commission will be 
planning for the future. While existing programs and services have to be 
taken into account in such planning, our joint efforts will be most productive 
if pointed toward dealing with the problems which can be solved only with 
the help of the Commission and about which there is considerable urgency. 


Believing that institutions should not regard what is best for the state as a 
whole as in any way inimical to their own development, I have stated to the 
Commission of Higher Education that the University of Illinois would sup- 
port having all plans, including its own, submitted to impartial scrutiny 
along the following lines: 

1 . The specific need for a proposed new program should be defined. 

2. Plans to fill the need for a new program should not be adopted until 
ways and means to fulfil existing needs in the same field for which the 
state already has an obligation are measured. 

?>. Further, new major obligations should not be undertaken until existing 
needs in all fields in all institutions are examined and priorities considered. 

4. Then, proposed new programs at all institutions should be considered, to 
see if any have equal or prior claim upon the state's resources. 


5. Finally, consideration should be given to when, where, and how best to 
fulfil the specific need upon which the proposal is based. 

The way is uncharted and intricate. How to get the best in planning 
without intruding unwisely upon the professional responsibilities of the uni- 
versities is a central question in the future of institutional relations in many 
states, particularly in populous states with a variety or large number of 
colleges and universities. 

With restraint in answering unfair criticism, with patience in dealing with 
unwise demands, with objectivity in viewing the needs of the commonwealth, 
the University of Illinois must work for improved institutional relationships 
in general and for state planning in particular; it must continue to press for 
impartial appraisal, in a state-wide context, of professionally prepared and 
objectively considered recommendations in planning for the future. 


IV. The Budget Year 

Since the fulfilment of the needs and opportunities of the University in 
large measure is related to financial resources, it is obvious that the State of 
the University in the future will be greatly influenced by the actions of the 
General Assembly in 1959. 

The University has done its planning prudently and carefully, and the 
officers of the University have every reason to believe that the requests will 
be received by the Governor and the members of the General Assembly with 
sympathetic interest and understanding. 

Reference has been made to the ten-year building program. We all hoped 
that accelerated progress in the development of that program would be 
authorized by the voters of the state in the bond issue proposal which was 
recently upon the ballot. 


Now that the bond issue has apparently failed of adoption in the referen- 
dum, some other way to finance the capital requirements will have to be 
found. The needs remain exactly as they were before the election. They 
are serious, and only prompt and effective action by the legislature can 
prevent their resulting in a deterioration in quality of service and a failure 
to meet rising enrolments and other mounting obligations. 

It is reassuring to note that among those who voted on the bond issue; a 


decisive majority was in its favor. Further, despite extended public discus- 
sion of the question, the needs for which the bond issue was proposed were at 
no time seriously questioned. It is to be assumed, I believe, that the people 
of Illinois wish to have a first-rate system of higher education and that they 
believe these needs ought to be met, but that they prefer that these needs be 
financed in ways other than general obligation bonds. 

We look forward to working with the Governor and the General Assembly 
in defining next steps. The capital budget of the University as approved by 
the Board of Trustees for the next biennium is $54,879,000. 


The operation budget for 1959-61 has been filed with the Department of 
Finance. It was submitted by the President, and approved by the Board of 
Trustees, after the usual careful preparation by the University Budget Com- 
mittee and in consultation with the University Council. 

While substantial reductions were made by the Budget Committee in the 
original estimates prepared by the colleges, schools, institutes, and other 
units, the estimates as submitted represent a firm ground for continuing 

The requested increase for the biennium is in the amount of $26,948,000, 
or approximately 26 per cent of the current appropriation. The total re- 
quested budget of $131,510,000 includes $118,410,000 from tax resources of 
the state and $13,100,000 from University income. 

Mandatory Increases 

Of the $26,948,000, $10,248,000 may be classified as for mandatory 
increases. This amount is necessary for increased contribution to the Uni- 
versity Retirement System, including some improvements, the amount to 
continue for a full biennium certain expenses of the present budget carried 
for only one year, the increase necessary for expense and equipment to meet 
rising costs, and to continue on a permanent basis expenditures financed this 
year temporarily from savings. There is also the amount required to put new 
buildings in operation and to staff the expected additional enrolments. 

The difference between the amount requested and the mandatory in- 
creases noted above is for three items: $4,100,000 is for improvement in the 
educational programs, $600,000 is for health insurance, and $12,000,000 is 
for salary adjustments. 

Improving the Educational Program 

The amounts requested by deans and directors for improving the educa- 
tional program in the biennium was $14,334,000. This sum was reduced by 


the Budget Committee to $4,100,000. All the programs requested were 
desirable and important. It was felt, however, that with the central impor- 
tance of the salary item, the new budget should be restricted to expansion of 
areas of teaching, research, and public service, which would maintain the 
University's academic position, leaving to another time the question of 
inauguration of new programs. 

While the sum proposed for this purpose is less than 30 per cent of the 
requests from deans and directors, it does cover the minimum amount 
needed to enable the University to meet current professional expectations. 
It will thus provide for essential improvements. 

Health Insurance 

A new item in the budget request, in the amount of $600,000, is for the 
University's contribution to the health insurance program. 

The University has in the past arranged, on a voluntary basis, hospital, 
medical, and surgical insurance for members of the staff and their depend- 
ents. A staff committee, after a thorough study, recommends a comprehen- 
sive plan which would cover the first $250 of all hospital expenses, and 
80 per cent thereafter. It would also cover 80 per cent of medical expendi- 
tures in excess of $100. Each person would be insured for a $15,000 maxi- 
mum benefit. The University would pay the full cost of the insurance for 
staff members and half of the premium for dependents. This proposal is in 
line with a growing practice in industry and provides an excellent personnel 
benefit at a relatively low cost to the state. 

Salary Adjustment 

In the opinion of all concerned with budget preparation, including the 
Board of Trustees, the salary adjustment for the staff in the amount of 
$12,000,000 for the biennium is the key concern. 

While the increases provided in the 1957-59 budget have enabled the 
University to keep pace with increases granted in similar institutions, further 
adjustments of considerable magnitude will be required during the next four 
bienniums if faculty salaries are to be brought into line with comparable 
professions and other universities of great distinction. The President's Com- 
mittee on Education Beyond the High School has recommended that faculty 
salaries be increased to twice the 1956 level within five to ten years. 

From 1952 until 1956 the cost of living remained fairly constant, rising 
only 2 per cent during the four-year period. Thus, the increases made during 
that period represented substantial gains in purchasing power. During the 
last two years, however, in spite of the business recession, the Bureau of 
Labor Statistics Index of Consumer Prices has risen steadily so that the price 
level is now 6.5 per cent greater than it was two years ago. There are good 
reasons for believing that a similar trend in living costs will continue. 


The increases in faculty salaries at a number of other universities in the 
Middle West since 1951 on the average have exceeded those at the Univer- 
sity of Illinois. These schools are planning for increases comparable to those 
presented here. In 1957 the University ranked fourth among the Council of 
Ten Universities in average salaries for full professors, fifth for associate 
professors, third for assistant professors, and second for instructors. 

Several leading universities now have minimum salaries of $12,000 for full 
professors. The minimum at the University of Illinois is now $8,400, and it 
should be raised. Approximately three-quarters of the academic staff are 
below the rank of professor. 

The gap between faculty salaries and commercial and industrial positions 
requiring comparable training is so great that many of the most promising 
students go into other lines of work. The situation is particularly acute in 
engineering, but shortages also exist in architecture, law, commerce, medi- 
cine, dentistry, chemistry, and many other fields. 

Business Week magazine has reported that the average salary of ten-year 
college graduates is $9,200 for industry and $10,400 for banking. This is 
from 20 to 30 per cent more than the average University of Illinois faculty 
member of similar seniority receives. A neighboring engineering school 
recently made a study of 47 teachers who left its faculty to enter industry. 
Two-thirds of the former staff members received industrial salaries which 
exceeded their academic salaries by 50 per cent, and one-sixth of them 
received more than twice as much. 

The University of Illinois has one of the largest and one of the finest 
colleges of medicine in the country. Yet fewer than 10 per cent of the full- 
time staff of the College receive salaries above the national average for 
practicing physicians. 

The most serious problem facing higher education in the next decade is 
recruiting enough personnel adequately to staff classes for twice the present 
enrolment. The University can ill afford to lose staff to other professions, 
and concerted efforts must be made to attract more people to the teaching 
profession. Many men and women are temperamentally attracted to the 
academic life, but to hold even these a generous increase in the salary level 
is essential. 

Adjustments in nonacademic salaries must be made to keep pace with 
anticipated increases in industry and in private and federal employment. 
In most nonacademic groups the salaries are now reasonably in line with 
comparable positions elsewhere, but further adjustments are needed in 
some areas. 

Altogether, $4,000,000 is needed for salary adjustments in the first year of 
the biennium and an additional $4,000,000 the second year, a total of 
$12,000,000 for the biennium. 


The amount requested is nearly half the new money asked for, and is 
approximately 10 per cent of the total proposed budget from tax funds. It 
is not the final answer to the salary problem, but it will permit a continua- 
tion of orderly improvement. 

From the foregoing it is apparent that grave issues in financing higher 
education confront the Governor and the 1959 General Assembly. 

The University of Illinois has prepared its budget recommendation with 
an awareness of the fiscal problems of the state but also with a careful 
measure of its responsibilities. 

The increase in population, the demands of the economy, the require- 
ments for progress in a space age create new necessities. There is no 
inexpensive or easy way in providing quality education and productive 
research for high level performance in all areas of our economy as we 
compete internationally for new ideas and new knowledge. 


V. The Faculty Emphasis 

At the risk of repeating the obvious, I shall make a few comments on 
the central place of the faculty in the life, government, and planning of 
the University of Illinois. Our taking this point for granted, our not talk- 
ing about it very much, may lead some to overlook it. The academic 
verities should be repeated occasionally. 

The panel on education in the recent Rockefeller Brothers Fund Report 
emphasized the need for continuing concern with individual values in these 

The danger is that we may forget the individual behind a facade of huge and 
impersonal institutions. The risk is that we will glorify science and forget the 
scientists; magnify government and ignore the men and women who discharge its 
functions; pin our hopes on education, business or cultural institutions, and lose 
sight of the fact that these institutions are no more creative or purposeful than the 
individuals who endow them with creativity and purpose. 

Beyond the temptation to overlook the individual, there is another danger. This 
is the difficulty of giving free expression to creativity within an institutional atmos- 
phere. We face the threat that our increasingly organized efforts will become 
increasingly routine; that the structures of science, government, and enterprise will 
become hard shells resistant to growth and change, rather than flexible institutions 
capable of renewing and re-creating themselves. 1 

It should be obvious to all who inform themselves about University of 
Illinois affairs that this institution has built a strong and effective tradition 
for faculty participation in University planning and policy decisions. 
Faculty views are influential in all matters affecting the life and welfare 
of the University. As the University has become large, it has necessarily 
become dependent upon representative faculty views, but even within this 
framework the senates, committees, and councils have remained vital and 

1 The Pursuit of Excellence — Education and the Future of America — Special 
Studies Project, Report V — Rockefeller Brothers Fund, Garden City, Doubleday & 
Co., Inc., 1958, p. IX. 


But I would speak not alone of faculty participation in the organized 
life of the University — I emphasize the place of the individual teacher 
and scholar. Our planning for the future is not only for students but to 
enable the faculty better to do its work with students and to advance 
research. New buildings are important for new enrolment, but they are 
also essential to give the scholar the tools for professional achievement. 
Emphasis on improvement in the salary structure has been a central point 
in recent budget presentations and it will remain so in the next. 

Every effort to strengthen the University in quality and importance in 
the life of the state and the nation is indirectly a support of the faculty. 
As the University grows in prestige and is recognized for academic 
strength, faculty welfare is proportionately advanced. 

Some believe that University growth and faculty welfare are in com- 
petition. They advocate arbitrary limitations of size and expansion of 
function. In my opinion, this position does not recognize the dynamics 
of institutional strength. The welfare of the faculty is related to the 
normal and wholesome growth of the University. Support will be procured 
only for that which in the broad sense is regarded as important. 

James Conant has reminded us of the continuing interrelationships of 
public understanding, normal growth, and faculty welfare. "Through the 
thousand years of university history, one fact has stood out; universities 
have flourished when their teaching was relevant to the times; universities 
have withered when they clung to outworn disciplines and traditions. But 
lest we rashly innovate for innovation's sake, we must remember that 
universities have also sickened when they entered rashly upon new ven- 
tures irrelevant to the problems of their times." 2 

As we translate our planning for the future into qualitative terms, 
whether we are discussing salaries or buildings or new programs, let us 
remember that in so doing we are dealing with the welfare of the faculty. 

2 Conant, James B. "The University and a Free Society" (History of the Ohio 
State University; Vol. V, Addresses and Proceedings of the Inauguration of Howard 
Landis Bevis, October 24 and 25, 1940), Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 1941. 


VI. University Relations 

In discussing the State of the University and in making plans, we must 
recognize that the future will be determined in part by attitudes and 
events beyond our control. What happens to any one institution is in- 
fluenced by the climate for higher education generally. We are reminded 
by James Bryant Conant that "Public demand has shaped the evolution 
of American education, and informed public opinion will largely determine 
the future pattern." 1 

The fact that the comprehensive state university, as typified by the 
institutions of the Middle West, has grown in scope and strength should 
not lead to complacency, to thinking that the critics have been dispersed, 
that debate on fundamental issues can be avoided, or that institutional 
relations can be ignored. 

We may discount the current talk about asking the student to pay the 
full cost of his education as inconsistent with the tradition of the people's 
university, one available to all who have the ability to meet its require- 
ments. We may minimize the current talk about limiting enrolments to 
those who are exceptionally talented as being inconsistent with the Ameri- 
can dream of education for all who can profit from educational service. 
We may believe that the current talk about ceilings on expenditures for 
education is inconsistent with the studies that show that the state univer- 
sities have been responsible for improvements in the economy far beyond 
any expenditures made upon them, improvement arising from new knowl- 
edge, from trained personnel, and from implementation of new ideas. 
But these topics are receiving serious public attention and they are but 
representative of a number of others to which the state universities must 
aggressively respond. 

1 The Citadel of Learning, Conant, James B., Yale University Press, 1956, p. 51. 


A recent issue of Fortune Magazine contained a feature article attacking 
what the author referred to as the "Productivity Record of the Colleges 
and Universities," emphasizing per pupil costs and faculty-student ratios 
as the measure of productivity. The author voices the question as to 
whether the changes in American education over the past two decades 
have made for an improvement or a deterioration of the educational 
product. 2 

This is but one article and one spokesman. But students of public 
opinion know that the theme is a recurrent one. 

The Kiplinger Magazine, Changing Times, for November, 1958, featured 
the headline "Waste in the Colleges," asking questions: Why don't colleges 
make more efficient use of their space and facilities? Why don't colleges 
make more efficient use of their teachers? Why don't colleges prune away 
superfluous courses? 

Other questions that are up for public discussion are: Is there strength 
in the concentration of resources in the comprehensive state university or 
should new services and resources be further regionalized? Should volun- 
tary giving to public universities be encouraged? Does the state control 
of universities interfere with institutional efficiency and academic integrity? 
Are admissions practices and policies changing rapidly enough? What is 
the moral and spiritual atmosphere in which our students and faculty 
work? Should the student be expected to pay the full cost of his educa- 
tion or at least as much of it as he can get money for by borrowing? 

Then there are the practical considerations which arise from conditions 
governing the recruitment of college teachers, developments in federal 
policies, the utilization of university experts in applied fields, the require- 
ments of basic research, the distribution of educational service. 

While it is true that the settlement of many of these issues will be beyond 
the control of any one university, no one institution is absolved from 
making its contribution to a professional solution of the questions raised. 
Some one has said that the cynic is the termite of education. This may be 
true, but I believe institutional lassitude in general professional matters is 
a far more serious threat to accelerated progress. Edmund Burke said 
"for the triumph of evil it is only necessary that good men do nothing." 
Some of the issues confronting higher education will be settled in this 
pattern unless professionally we all do all that we can, beyond our own 
individual assignments and responsibilities, to help in the public under- 
standing of the role of higher education in American life. 

2 Seligman, Daniel, "The Low Productivity of the Education Industry," Fortune, 
October, 1958, p. 135 ff.